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The Y block engines used in Ford Trucks from 1954 - 1957 had the following cubic inch displacement, 239 CI, 256 CI and 272 CI. The 292 engine, although available in 1955 for passenger cars, was not used in Trucks until 1958.
The 312 CI engine, available from 1956 through 1960, was never used in Trucks. If a truck is found with a 312 CI engine it was installed after it left the factory. The reason the 312 engine was not used in trucks is because the 292 CI engine provided the low end torque and durability required for truck operation.
Tech data in shop manuals, parts manuals, sales brochures, etc do not support 312 CI truck engines. In addition a 312 CI truck engine VIN code is nonexistent.
The 279 CI, 317 CI, 302 CI and the 332 CI was a totally different engine similar to the Lincoln engine and was used in big Ford trucks.
The assumption that 312 CI engines were use in trucks may have come from the availability of the 317 CI engines, which, as mentioned above, was a totally different engine.
The heavy duty 292 steel crankshaft part number CITE-6303-F and the heavy duty 292 truck rods P/N C1TE-6200-C first appeared in 1961 model trucks.
The following information compiled from FoMoCo data supports the fact that 312 CI engines were not installed during production of Y block Ford trucks from 1954 until the end of production in 1964 at any of the assembly plants.
1- 1948 - 1956 FORD TRUCK PARTS AND ACCESSORIES TEXT CATALOG GENERAL INFORMATION SECTION 1954 - 1955 Ford Truck Y Block Engines Code Cubic Inch Disp. V 239 Z 256 1956 Ford Truck Y Block Engines V 272 Light Duty Z 272 Heavy Duty (2blb) R 272 Heavy Duty (4blb) 1957 - 1963 FORD TRUCK PARTS AND ACCESSORIES TEXT CATALOG GENERAL INFORMATION SECTION 1957 FORD Y Block Engines Code Cubic Inch Disp. K 272 Medium Duty (2V) 1957, 58 L 272 Medium Duty (2V) 1958/63 1958 was the first year the 292 CI engine was offered in trucks C 292 Medium Duty (2V) 1958/63 D 292 Heavy Duty (4V) 1964 -1966 FORD TRUCK PARTS AND ACCESSORIES TEXT CATALOG GENERAL INFORMATION SECTION 1964 Ford Y Block Engines 1964 was the last year the Y block was used in trucks Code Cubic Inch Disp. C 292 (2V) D 292 (4V)